PSHE


Developing confidence and responsibility and making the most of their abilities

AT KEY STAGE 1

  • to recognise what they like and dislike, what is fair and unfair, and what is right and wrong 
  • to share their opinions on things that matter to them and explain their views 
  • to recognise, name and deal with their feelings in a positive way 
  • to think about themselves, learn from their experiences and recognise what they are good at 
  • how to set simple goals. 

AT KEY STAGE 2

  • to talk and write about their opinions, and explain their views, on issues that affect themselves and society 
  • to recognise their worth as individuals by identifying positive things about themselves and their achievements, seeing their mistakes, making amends and setting personal goals 
  • to face new challenges positively by collecting information, looking for help, making responsible choices, and taking action 
  • to recognise, as they approach puberty, how people’s emotions change at that time and how to deal with their feelings towards themselves, their family and others in a positive way 
  • to understand the impact that lifestyle sometimes has on mental health and learn strategies for coping with stress and change
  • about the range of jobs carried out by people they know, and to understand how they can develop skills to make their own contribution in the future to look after their money and realise that future wants and needs may be met through saving

Preparing to play an active role as citizens

AT KEY STAGE 1

  • to take part in discussions with one other person and the whole class 
  • to take part in a simple debate about topical issues 
  • to recognise choices they can make, and recognise the difference between right and wrong 
  • to agree and follow rules for their group and classroom, and understand how rules help them 
  • to realise that people and other living things have needs, and that they have responsibilities to meet them 
  • that they belong to various groups and communities, such as family and school 
  • what improves and harms their local, natural and built environments and about some of the ways people look after them 
  • to contribute to the life of the class and school 
  • to realise that money comes from different sources and can be used for different purposes.

AT KEY STAGE 2

  • to research, discuss and debate topical issues, problems and events 
  • why and how rules and laws are made and enforced, why different rules are needed in different situations and how to take part in making and changing rules 
  • to realise the consequences of anti-social and aggressive behaviours, such as bullying and racism, on individuals and communities 
  • that there are different kinds of responsibilities, rights and duties at home, at school and in the community, and that these can sometimes conflict with each other 
  • to reflect on spiritual, moral, social, and cultural issues, using imagination to understand other people’s experiences 
  • to resolve differences by looking at alternatives, making decisions and explaining choices 
  • what democracy is, and about the basic institutions that support it locally and nationally 
  • to recognise the role of voluntary, community and pressure groups 
  • to appreciate the range of national, regional, religious and
  • ethnic identities in the United Kingdom 
  • that resources can be allocated in different ways and that these economic choices affect individuals, communities and the sustainability of the environment 
  • to explore how the media present information. 

Developing a healthy, safer lifestyle

AT KEY STAGE 1

  • how to make simple choices that improve their health and well-being 
  • to maintain personal hygiene 
  • how some diseases spread and can be controlled 
  • about the process of growing from young to old and how people's needs change 
  • the names of the main parts of the body using correct biological terminology
  • that all household products, including medicines, can be harmful if not used properly 
  • rules for, and ways of, keeping safe, including basic road safety, and about people who can help them to stay safe. 

AT KEY STAGE 2

  • what makes a healthy lifestyle, including the benefits of exercise and healthy eating, what affects mental health, and how to make informed choices 
  • that bacteria and viruses can affect health and that following simple, safe routines can reduce their spread 
  • about how the body changes as they approach puberty 
  • to understand about body image and to celebrate the diversity of the human body 
  • which commonly available substances and drugs are legal and illegal, their effects and risks 
  • to recognise the different risks in different situations and then decide how to behave responsibly, including sensible road use, and judging what kind of physical contact is acceptable or unacceptable 
  • that pressure to behave in an unacceptable or risky way can come from a variety of sources, including people they know, and how to ask for help and use basic techniques for resisting pressure to do wrong 
  • school rules about health and safety, basic emergency aid procedures and where to get help.
  • to understand aspects of online safety including grooming, social networks
  • to recognise networks of people in their communities that can be contacted when things go wrong (Protective Behaviours)

Developing good relationships and respecting the differences between people

AT KEY STAGE 1

  • to recognise how their behaviour affects other people 
  • to listen to other people, and play and work cooperatively 
  • to identify and respect the differences and similarities between people 
  • that family and friends should care for each other 
  • that there are different types of teasing and bullying, that bullying is wrong, and how to get help to deal with bullying.

AT KEY STAGE 2

  • that their actions affect themselves and others, to care about other people’s feelings and to try to see things from their points of view 
  • to think about the lives of people living in other places and times, and people with different values and customs 
  • to be aware of different types of relationship, including marriage and those between friends and families, and to develop the skills to be effective in relationships 
  • to realise the nature and consequences of racism, teasing, bullying, abuse and aggressive behaviours including domestic violence, and how to respond to them and ask for help 
  • to recognise and challenge stereotypes 
  • that differences and similarities between people arise from a number of factors, including cultural, ethnic, racial and religious diversity, gender and disability where individuals, families and groups can get help and support

During key stage 1, pupils should be taught the knowledge, skills and understanding through opportunities to: 

  1. take and share responsibility [for example, for their own behaviour; by helping to make classroom rules and following them; by looking after pets well] 
  2. feel positive about themselves [for example, by having their achievements recognised and by being given positive feedback about themselves] 
  3. take part in discussions [for example, talking about topics of school, local, national, European, Commonwealth and global concern, such as 'where our food and raw materials for industry come from'] 
  4. make real choices [for example, between healthy options in school meals, what to watch on television, what games to play, how to spend and save money sensibly] 
  5. meet and talk with people [for example, with outside visitors such as religious leaders, police officers, the school nurse] 
  6. develop relationships through work and play [for example, by sharing equipment with other pupils or their friends in a group task] 
  7. consider social and moral dilemmas that they come across in everyday life [for example, aggressive behaviour, questions of fairness, right and wrong, simple political issues, use of money, simple environmental issues] 
  8. ask for help [for example, from family and friends, midday supervisors, older pupils, the police]. 

During  key stage 2, pupils should be taught the knowledge, skills and understanding through opportunities to: 

  1. take responsibility [for example, for planning and looking after the school environment; for the needs of others, such as by acting as a peer supporter, as a befriender, or as a playground mediator for younger pupils; for looking after animals properly; for identifying safe, healthy and sustainable means of travel when planning their journey to school] 
  2. feel positive about themselves [for example, by producing personal diaries, profiles and portfolios of achievements; by having opportunities to show what they can do and how much responsibility they can take] 
  3. participate [for example, in the school’s decision-making process, relating it to democratic structures and processes such as councils, parliaments, government and voting] 
  4. make real choices and decisions [for example, about issues affecting their health and well-being such as smoking; on the use of scarce resources; how to spend money, including pocket money and contributions to charities] 
  5. meet and talk with people [for example, people who contribute to society through environmental pressure groups or international aid organisations; people who work in the school and the neighbourhood, such as religious leaders, community police officers] 
  6. develop relationships through work and play [for example, taking part in activities with groups that have particular needs, such as children with special needs and the elderly; communicating with children in other countries by satellite, e-mail or letters] 
  7. consider social and moral dilemmas that they come across in life [for example, encouraging respect and understanding between different races and dealing with harassment] 
  8. find information and advice [for example, through help lines; by understanding about welfare systems in society] 
  9. prepare for change [for example, transferring to secondary school].